Preferred Sample Type

Creatinine (Urine)

Suitable Specimen Types

Plain Spot Urine 24 Hour Urine Plain

Creatinine (Urine)

Specimen Volume

24 hour urine collection or random collection (minimum sample volume 500 uL)

Sample Preparation


Turnaround Time

1 day

Sample Processing In Laboratory


Sample Stability

Samples are stable for seven days at 4 ºC, freeze samples at -20 ºC for long term storage.

General Information

Creatinine is a non-protein waste product of creatine phosphate metabolism by skeletal muscle tissue. Creatinine production is continuous and is proportional to muscle mass. Serum creatinine concentrations are used in the determination of creatinine clearance (an indicator of GFR) and estimation of the GFR utilising the 4 variable MDRD equation. Each of these derived figures can then be used to both identify and monitor chronic kidney disease. Determination of urine creatinine is useful in:

  • The measurement of creatinine clearance which also requires measurement of creatinine in serum. (Requires 24 hour urine collection)
  • Determination of the albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) in testing for microalbuminuria (requires plain spot urine)
  • To compensate for variations in urine concentration in spot-check and 24 hour samples, it is helpful to compare the amount of the analyte of interest to its concentration of creatinine

Patient Preparation



Estimation of creatinine clearance requires a 24 hour urine sample and paired serum creatinine sample.

Reference Range

Male:  9.0-18.0 mmol/24hrs

Female:  7.0-16.0 mmol/24hrs



  • EQA Status: NEQAS
  • EQAS Scheme: Yes

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